Various declarations-constitutions 1

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We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.


When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,[74] that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.


Article 1.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 2.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Article 3.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.


1 When children are born, they are free and each should be treated in the same way. They have reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a friendly manner.
2  Everyone can claim the following rights, despite
– a different sex
– a different skin colour
– speaking a different language
– thinking different things
– believing in another religion
– owning more or less
– being born in another social group
– coming from another country
It also makes no difference whether the country you live in is independent or not.
3  You have the right to live, and to live in freedom and safety.
4  Nobody has the right to treat you as his or her slave and you should not make anyone your slave.
5  Nobody has the right to torture you.
6  You should be legally protected in the same way everywhere, and like everyone else.
7  The law is the same for everyone; it should be applied in the same way to all.
8  You should be able to ask for legal help when the rights your country grants you are not respected.
9  Nobody has the right to put you in prison, to keep you there, or to send you away from your country unjustly, or without good reason.
10  If you go on trial this should be done in public. The people who try you should not let themselves be influenced by others.


The Scope of Human Obligations

1   All human beings are born with reason and a conscience. As members of their community, in which alone the free and full development of a person’s personality is possible, every individual, and every organ of society, has the following obligations.

2 These obligations are without exemptions due to race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

3 These obligations are without exemptions due to political, jurisdictional or international status of a country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it is independent, a trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

To Individuals

4  Act towards other people as brothers and sisters, born free and equal, in dignity and obligations.

5   Respect and protect the life, liberty and personal security of all people.

6  Prevent anyone from being arbitrarily arrested, detained or exiled.

7  Allow all people freedom of opinion and expression without interference. Let them seek, receive and express thoughts and opinions in any way they wish, without regard for frontiers.

8   Allow all people freedom of movement and place of residence within your country.

9  Allow all people to assemble peacefully and form associations, without compulsion.

10  Allow all people freedom of thought, conscience and religion. Enable them to freely choose their religion or belief, or to freely change it.

11  Let all people express their choice of religion or belief in public and in private, alone or with others, in teaching, practice, worship or observance.

12   Base the authority of government on the will of the people, through periodic free elections by secret vote, with equal and universal suffrage.

13  Take part in the government of your country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

14  See that everyone has the right to own property, alone or with others. Let it not be taken from them unlawfully.

15  Do not arbitrarily interfere with another person’s privacy, family, home, or correspondence. Your laws must protect people against such interference.

16  Do not attack a person’s honor and reputation. See that the law protects people against such attacks.

17 Free people held in slavery or servitude. Prohibit all forms of slavery and the slave trade.

18 Prevent people from being tortured or subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.


Artículo 1. España es una República democrática de trabajadores de toda clase, que se organiza en régimen de Libertad y de Justicia. Los poderes de todos sus órganos emanan del pueblo. La República constituye un Estado integral, compatible con la autonomía de los Municipios y las Regiones. La bandera de la República española es roja, amarilla y morada.

Artículo 2. Todos los españoles son iguales ante la ley.

Artículo 3. El Estado español no tiene religión oficial.

Artículo 4. El castellano es el idioma oficial de la República. Todo español tiene obligación de saberlo y derecho de usarlo, sin perjuicio de los derechos que las leyes del Estado reconozcan a las lenguas de las provincias o regiones. Salvo lo que se disponga en leyes especiales, a nadie se le podrá exigir el conocimiento ni el uso de ninguna lengua regional.

Artículo 5. La capitalidad de la República se fija en Madrid.

Artículo 6. España renuncia a la guerra como instrumento de política nacional.

Artículo 7. El Estado español acatará las normas universales del Derecho internacional, incorporándolas a su derecho positivo

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